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Coming to An Office Near You 
    The effect of today's technology on tomorrow's jobs will be immense - and no country is ready for it.
[A] Innovation, the elixir (灵丹妙药) of progress, has always cost people their jobs. In the Industrial Revolution artisan (工匠) weavers were swept aside by the mechanical loom. Over the past 30 years the digital revolution has displaced many of the mid-skill jobs that supported 20th-century middle-class life. Typists, ticket agents, bank tellers and many production-line jobs have been dispensed with, just as the weavers were.
[B] For those, including this newspaper, who believe that technological progress has made the world a better place, such churn (搅动) is a natural part of rising prosperity. Although innovation kills some jobs, it creates new and better ones, as a more productive society becomes richer and its wealthier inhabitants demand more goods and services. A hundred years ago one in three American workers was employed on a farm. Today less than 2% of them produce far more food. The millions freed from the land did not become jobless, but found better-paid work as the economy grew more sophisticated. Today the pool of secretaries has shrunk, but there are ever more computer programmers and web designers.
[C] Optimism remains the right starting-point, but for workers the dislocating (扰乱) effects of technology may make themselves evident faster than its benefits. Even if new jobs and wonderful products emerge, in the short term income gaps will widen, causing huge social dislocation and perhaps even changing politics. Technology's impact will feel like a tornado (龙卷风), hitting the rich world first, but eventually sweeping through poorer countries too. No government is prepared for it.
[D] Why be worried? It is partly just a matter of history repeating itself. In the early part of the Industrial Revolution the rewards of increasing productivity went disproportionately to capital;later on, labour reaped most of the benefits. The pattern today is similar. The prosperity brought by the digital revolution has gone overwhelmingly to the owners of capital and the highest-skilled workers. Over the past three decades, labour's share of output has shrunk globally from 64% to 59%. Meanwhile, the share of income going to the top 1% in America has risen from around 9% in the 1970s to 22% today. Unemployment is at alarming levels in much of the rich world, and not just for cyclical reasons. In 2000,65% of working-age Americans were in work; since then the proportion has fallen, during good years as well as bad, to the current level of 59%.
[E] Worse, it seems likely that this wave of technological disruption to the job market has only just started. From driverless cars to clever household gadgets, innovations that already exist could destroy lots of jobs that have hitherto (迄今) been untouched. The public sector is one obvious target: it has proved singularly resistant to tech-driven reinvention. But the step change in what computers can do will have a powerful effect on middle-class jobs in the private sector too.
[F] Until now the jobs most vulnerable to machines were those that involved routine, repetitive tasks. But thanks to the rise in processing power and the ubiquity (无处不在) of digitised information ("big data"), computers are increasingly able to perform complicated tasks more cheaply and effectively than people. Clever industrial robots can quickly "learn" a set of human actions. Services may be even more vulnerable. Computers can already detect intruders (入侵者) in a closed-circuit camera picture more reliably than a human can. By comparing reams of financial or biometric data, they can often diagnose fraud or illness more accurately than any number of accountants or doctors. One recent study by academics at Oxford University suggests that 47% of today's jobs could be automated in the next two decades.
[G] At the same time, the digital revolution is transforming the process of innovation itself, as our special report explains. Thanks to off-the-shelf code from the Intemet and platforms that host services (such as Amazon's cloud computinG., provide distribution (Apple's app storE. And offer marketing (FacebooK., the number of digital start-ups has exploded. Just as computer-games designers invented a product that humanity never knew it needed but now cannot do without, so these firms will no doubt dream up new goods and services to employ millions.But for now they are singularly light on workers. When Instagram, a popular photo-sharing site, was sold to Facebook for about $1 billion in 2012, it had 30m customers and employed 13 people. Kodak, which filed for bankruptcy a few months earlier, employed 145,000 people in its heyday (全盛期).
[H] The problem is one of timing as much as anything. Google now employs 46,000 people. But it takes years for new industries to grow, whereas the disruption a start up causes to incumbents (现任者) is felt sooner. Airbnb may turn homeowners with spare rooms into entrepreneurs, but it poses a direct threat to the lower end of the hotel business -- a massive employer.
[I] If this analysis is halfway correct, the social effects will be huge. Many of the jobs most at risk are lower down the ladder, whereas the skills that are least vulnerable to automation tend to be higher up, so median wages are likely to remain depressed for some time and income gaps are likely to widen.
[J] Anger about rising inequality is bound to grow, but politicians will find it hard to address the problem. Shunning (避开) progress would be as useless now as the Luddites' protests against mechanised looms were in the 1810s, because any country that tried to stop would be left behind by competitors eager to embrace new technology. The freedom to raise taxes on the rich to punitive (惩罚性的) levels will be similarly constrained by the mobility of capital and highly skilled labour.
[K] The main way in which governments can help their people through this dislocation is through education systems. One of the reasons for the improvement in workers' fortunes in the latter part of the Industrial Revolution was because schools were built to educate them -- a dramatic change at the time. Now those schools themselves need to be changed, to foster the creativity that humans will need to set them apart from computers. There should be less rote-learning and more critical thinking. Technology itself will help, whether through MOOCs (massive open online courses) or even video games that simulate the skills needed for work.
[L] The definition of "a state education" may also change. Far more money should be spent on pre-schooling, since the cognitive abilities and social skills that children learn in their first few years define much of their future potential. And adults will need continuous education. State education may well involve a year of study to be taken later in life, perhaps in stages.
[M] Yet however well people are taught, their abilities will remain unequal, and in a world which is increasingly polarized (两极化) economically, many will find their job prospects dimmed and wages squeezed. The best way of helping them is not, as many on the left seem to think, to push up minimum wages. Jacking (提高) up the floor too far would accelerate the shift from human workers to computers. Better to top up low wages with public money so that anyone who works has a reasonable income, through a bold expansion of the tax credits that countries such as America and Britain use.
[N] Innovation has brought great benefits to humanity. Nobody in their right mind would want to return to the world of handloom weavers. But the benefits of technological progress are unevenly distributed, especially in the early stages of each new wave, and it is up to governments to spread them. In the 19th century it took the threat of revolution to bring about progressive reforms. Today's governments would do well to start making the changes needed before their people get angry.
1.[选词填空]To prepare students for this digital revolution, schools need to be changed to foster creativity and critical thinking in learning.
    • 解题思路:[K]段第3、4句提到,现在,这些学校本身也需要改变,以培养创造力,让人类区别于计算机。学习中应该少一些死记硬背,多一些批判性思维。由此可知,学校应该改变,培养创造力和批判性思维。题目是对原文两句话信息的整合。
    2.[选词填空]Digital revolution will influence jobs both in the public sector and the private sector.
      • 解题思路:[E]段最后两句提到,公共部门显然是目标之一……但计算机带来的阶跃变化也将极大影响私营部门的中产阶级工作岗位。结合该段第l句说的“科技对就业市场的破坏性浪潮可能才刚刚开始”可知,“公共部门显然是目标之一”指的是数字革命对公共部门工作岗位的影响.由此可知,公共部门和私营部门的工作岗位都会受到数字革命的影响:题目是对[E]段最后两句的概括。
      3.[选词填空]If a country deliberately avoided technological progress, it would be left behind by countries that eagerly accept new technology.
        • 解题思路:[J]段第2句提到,避免进步就像l9世纪l0年代勒德分子反对机械织布机那样无用,因为任何试图停止前进的国家都会落后于渴望获得新技术的竞争对手:题目是对该句提到的原因的同义转述,其中的a country deliberately avoided technological progress对应any country that tried to stop,eagerly accept new technology对应eager to embrace new technology。
        4.[选词填空]Computers may replace people in complicated tasks for doing these tasks more cheaply and effectively than people.
          • 解题思路:[F]段第2句后半句提到,计算机越来越有能力以低于人力的成本、高于人力的效率来执行复杂任务。由此可推断,由于成本更低、效率更高,计算机可能会取代人力去执行复杂任务。题目是在对原文进行合理推断的基础上得出的结论.
          5.[选词填空]For now the number of workers tends to be very small in most new digital companies.
            • 解题思路:[G]段第2句提到,数字初创公司的数量已经激增:第4句提到,但目前它们所聘请的员工却都极少。第4句的they指代的是digital start.ups(数字初创公司),由此可知,目前大多数数字初创公司的员工数量都很少。题目是对第4句的同义转述,其中的new digital companies对应第4句的they,即digital start-ups。
            6.[选词填空]Today the owners of capital and the highest-skilled workers get most of the benefits of the digital revolution.
              • 解题思路:[D]段第5句提到,数字革命带来的繁荣大部分被资本所有者和拥有最高技能的工人所分享。也就是说,资本所有者和拥有最高技能的工人得到的数字革命的好处最多。题目是对该句的同义转述。
              7.[选词填空]The effects of technology will spread from the rich countries to poorer countries.
                • 解题思路:[C]段第3句提到,科技的影响就像是龙卷风,首先冲击富裕世界,但最终也会席卷并不富裕的国家。也就是说,科技的影响会从富裕国家扩展到不富裕的国家。题目是对该句的同义转述,其中的the effects of technology对应该句的technology’s impact.
                8.[选词填空]To help low-skilled workers, topping up their income with public money is a better way than pushing up minimum wages.
                  • 解题思路:[M]段第2句提到,帮助他们最好的办法并不是像许多左派认为的那样调高最低工资。第4句提到,更好的做法是……用政府收入补贴低工资。由此可知,在帮助低技能工人增加收入方面,政府收入补贴低工资的方法比调高最低工资更好。题目是对原文两句话信息的整合。
                  9.[选词填空]Innovation kills some jobs but creates new and better jobs as the society becomes more prosperous.
                    • 解题思路:[B]段第2句提到,虽然创新消灭了一些工作岗位,但随着社会生产力的提高,社会财富日益增加,富裕起来的居民需要更多的商品和服务,更新更好的工作机会也随之出现了。题目是对该句的同义转述,其中的as the society becomes more prosperous对应该句中的as a more productive society becomes richer。
                    10.[选词填空]The government should invest more money in education, especially the critical pre-school education.
                      • 解题思路:[L]段第2句提到,学前教育的资金投入应该增加,因为儿童在最初几年里获得的认知能力和社交能力决定了他们未来大部分的潜力:接下来的两句还提到,成人将需要继续教育。国家教育也可能包括在成人离开学校后进行的为期一年或分为几个阶段的教育。由此可推断出,国家应该加大教育投资,尤其是学前教育。题目是在对原文信息进行合理推断的基础上得出的结论。
                      • 参考答案:K,E,J,F,G,D,C,M,B,L