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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
试题内容
The EarthPower and Light
A)Compared to the rest of the universe, the Earth is very small. Our planet and seven others orbit the Sun, which is only one of about 200 billion stars in our galaxy. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is part of the universe, which includes millions of other galaxies and their stars and planets. By comparison, the Earth is microscopic. Compared to a person, on the other hand, the Earth is enormous. It has a diameter of 7,926 miles (12,756 kilometers) at the equator, and it has a mass of about 6 × 1024 kilograms. The Earth orbits the Sun at a speed of about 66,638 miles per hour (29.79 kilometers per second). Don’t dwell on those numbers too long, though; to a lot of people, the Earth is inconceivably, mind-bogglingly big. And it’s just a fraction of the size of the Sun. From our perspective on Earth, the Sun looks very small. This is because it’s about 93 million miles away from us. The Sun’s diameter at its equator is about 100 times bigger than Earth’s, and about a million Earths could fit inside the Sun. The Sun is inconceivably, mind-bogglingly bigger. But without the Sun, the Earth could not exist. In a sense, the Earth is a giant machine, full of moving parts and complex systems. All those systems need power, and that power comes from the Sun.
B)The Sun is an enormous nuclear power source—through complex reactions, it transforms hydrogen into helium, releasing light and heat. Because of these reactions, every square meter of our planet’s surface gets about 342 Watts of energy from the Sun every year. This is about 1.7×1017 Watts total, or as much as 1.7 billion large power plants could generate. You can learn about how the Sun creates energy in How the Sun Works. When this energy reaches the Earth, it provides power for a variety of reactions, cycles and systems. It drives the circulation of the atmosphere and the oceans. It makes food for plants, which many people and animals eat. Life on Earth could not exist without the Sun, and the planet itself would not have developed without it. To a casual observer, the Sun’s most visible contributions to life are light, heat and weather.
Night and Day
C)Some of the Sun’s biggest impacts on our planet are also its most obvious. As the Earth spins on its axis, parts of the planet are in the Sun while others are in the shade. In other words, the Sun appears to rise and set. The parts of the world that are in daylight get warmer while the parts that are dark gradually lose the heat they absorbed during the day. You can get a sense of how much the Sun affects the Earth’s temperature by standing outside on a partly cloudy day. When the Sun is behind a cloud, you feel noticeably cooler than when it isn’t. The surface of our planet absorbs this heat from the Sun and emits it the same way that pavement continues to give off heat in the summer after the Sun goes down. Our atmosphere does the same thing--it absorbs the heat that the ground emits and sends some of it back to the Earth. The Earth’s relationship with the Sun also creates, seasons. 
D)The Earth’s axis tips a little—about 23.5 degrees. One hemisphere points toward the Sun as the other points away. The hemisphere that points toward the Sun is warmer and gets more light--it’s summer there, and in the other hemisphere it’s winter. This effect is less dramatic near the equator than at the poles, since the equator receives about the same amount of sunlight all year. The poles, on the other hand, receive no sunlight at all during their winter months, which is part of the reason why they’re frozen. Most people are so used to the differences between night and day (or summer and winter) that they take them for granted. But these changes in light and temperature have an enormous impact on other systems on our planet. One is the circulation of air through our atmosphere. For example: 
E)The Sun shines brightly over the equator. The air gets very warm because the equator faces the Sun directly and because the ozone layer is thinner there. As the air warms, it begins to rise, creating a low pressure system. The higher it rises, the more the air cools. Water condenses as the air cools, creating clouds and rainfall. The air dries out as the rain falls. The result is warm, dry air, relatively high in our atmosphere. Because of the lower air pressure, air rashes toward the equator from the north and south. As it warms, it rises, pushing the dry air away to the north and the south.
F)The dry air sinks as it cools, creating high-pressure areas and deserts to the north and south of the equator. This is just one piece of how the Sun circulates air around the world—ocean currents, weather patterns and other factors also play a part. But in general, air moves from high-pressure to low-pressure areas, much the way that high-pressure air rashes from the mouth of an inflated balloon when you let go. Heat also generally moves from the warmer equator to the cooler poles. Imagine a warm drink sitting on your desk--the air around the drink gets warmer as the drink gets colder. This happens on Earth on an enormous scale.
G)The Coriolis Effect, a product of the Earth’s rotation, affects this system as well. It causes large weather systems, like hurricanes, to rotate. It helps create westward-running trade winds near the equator and eastward-running jet streams in the northern and southern hemispheres. These wind patterns move moisture and air from one place to another, creating weather patterns. (The Coriolis Effect works on a large scale—it doesn’t really affect the water draining from the sink like some people suppose.).The Sun gets much of the credit for creating both wind and rain. When the Sun warms air in a specific location, that air rises, creating an area of low pressure. More air rushes in from surrounding areas to fill the void, creating wind. Without the Sun, there wouldn’t be wind. There also might not be breathable air at all.
Water and Fire
H)The Sun has a huge effect on our water. It warms the oceans around the tropics, and its absence cools the water around the poles. Because of this, ocean currents move large amounts of warm and cold water, drastically affecting the weather and climate around the world. The Sun also drives the water cycle, which moves about 18,757 cubic miles (495,000 cubic kilometers) of water vapor through the atmosphere every year.
I)If you’ve ever gotten out of a swimming pool on a hot day and realized a few minutes later that you were dry again, you have firsthand experience with evaporation. If you’ve seen water form on the side of a cold drink, you’ve seen condensation in action. These are primary components of the water cycle, also called the hydrologic cycle, which exchanges moisture between bodies of water and land masses. The water cycle is responsible for clouds and rain as well as our supply of drinking water.
1.[选词填空]The water cycle is responsible for clouds, rain and our supply of drinking water.
    • 解题思路:根据题干信息“water cycle” 可以定位到I段“The water cycle is responsible for clouds and rain as well as our supply of drinking water.” 故匹配段落为I。
    2.[选词填空]One million.Earths could fit inside the Sun.
      • 解题思路:根据题干信息“fit inside the Sun” 可以定位到A段“…and about a million Earths could fit in side the Sun。”即100万个地球才能填满一个太阳,故匹配段落为A。
      3.[选词填空]The Coriolis Effect cause westward-running trade winds, hurricanes and eastward-running jet streams.
        • 解题思路:根据题干信息“the Coriolis Effect” 可以定位到G段“The Coriolis Effect, a product of the Earth’s rotation, affects this system as well. It causes large weather systems, like hurricanes, to rotate. It helps create westward-running trade winds near the equator and eastward-running jet streams in the northern and southern hemispheres.”即:The Coriolis Effect作为地球上循环运动的产物,也影响着该系统,它能导致大规模的天气变化,如飓风、赤道附近的向西信风、南北半球的向东高速气流,故匹配段落为G。
        4.[选词填空]The Sun has closely relation to create wind.
          • 解题思路:根据题干信息“the Sun”和“create” 可以定位到G段“The Sun gets much of the credit for creating both wind and rain.” 即:太阳的一个重要作用是制造风和雨,故匹配段落为G。
          5.[选词填空]If you’ve seen water form on the side of a cold drink, you’ve seen condensation in action.
            • 解题思路:细节辨认题。根据题干信息“water form,cold drink” 可以定位到I段“If you’ve seen water form on the side of a cold drink, you’ve seen condensation in action.” 故匹配段落为I。
            6.[选词填空]The equator receives about the same amount of sunlight all year.
              • 解题思路:根据题干信息“the same amount of sunlight” 可以定位到D段“This effect is…at the poles, since the equator receives about the same amount of sunlight all year”,由此可知,赤道附近一年之中所接收的太阳光都是没有变化的,故匹配段落为D。
              7.[选词填空]Our atmosphere absorbs the heat the ground emits and sends some of it back to the Earth.
                • 解题思路:根据题干信息“our atmosphere” 可以定位到C段“our atmosphere does the same thing—it absorbs the heat that the ground emits and sends some of it back to the Earth。”即:大气也在做同样的事——吸收地面的热量,然后再把一部分返回到地面,故匹配段落为C。
                8.[选词填空]The Sun has a huge effect on our water.
                  • 解题思路:根据题干信息“a huge effect” 可以定位到H段“The Sun has a huge effect on our water.” 故匹配段落为H。
                  9.[选词填空]Air rushes toward the equator from the north and south because of the lower air pressure.
                    • 解题思路:根据题干信息“air rushes”和“the equator” 可以定位到第二个小标题下的第七段首句“Because of the lower air pressure, air rushes toward the equator from the north and south. ” 即:,由于气压较低,空气从南北部涌向赤道,在变暖的过程中上升,把干燥的空气推向南部和北部,故匹配段落为E。
                    10.[选词填空]Earth would not have developed without the Sun.
                      • 解题思路:根据题干信息“developed without” 可以定位到B段 “Life on Earth could not exist without the Sun, and the planet itself would not have developed without it” 即:如果没有太阳,地球上的生命将不会存在,地球本身也不会发展到现在,太阳是地球存在发展的条件,题干中的“Earth”即指原文中的“the planet itself”,故匹配段落为B。
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                      • 参考答案:I,A,G,G,I,D,C,H,E,B