• 所属考试大学英语四级试题库
  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
Organic Food for ThoughtA.Feeding 30 million schoolchildren is a difficult task. As a result, many of today's schoolcafeterias' offerings end up as appealing as a tray of lukewarm airplane food. And if there'sone point of agreement on the state of school lunches, it's that local school districts andthe federal government are overtasked. The US Department of Agriculture's NationalSchool Lunch Programme (NSLP) helps feed millions of American schoolchildren. Criticscharge that the programme is underfunded and misspends money on meals that are overlyprocessed, too rich in fat and not nutritious. The challenge is how to change this on anational and local level.
B.Help has historically trickled in courtesy of local entrepreneurs and nearby natural-foodadvocates who supplied some schools with organic and farm-fresh foods. Now, a newcampaign supported by national corporations hopes to make more sweeping changesacross the country. Whole Foods and a loose coalition of organic-food manufacturersand advocates say that creating a healthier national food policy is the start.
C.In August, Whole Foods launched a fundraising campaign to reform the country's schoollunch programmes and has so far raised more than $440,000 that will support an onlineeffort to help school districts create healthy and affordable meal options. According tothe supermarket chain's chief operating officer Walter Robb, some of that money willalso help raise awareness about the Child Nutrition Act (CAN). CAN determines schoolfood policy and financial resources as well as funds the NSLP. Advocates for healthierlunches say that the Nutrition Act will be reauthorised by the President and Congress
(although it may be delayed several months beyond its September 30 deadline, whiledebate about health-care legislation continues). School lunch programmes now get$9.3 billion in federal funding, or about $2.68 for each eligible child. Subtract labourand other administrative costs and some child-nutrition advocates estimate that only $1goes toward food. That's not enough, said Robb. "It's a Sisyphean ( 永远做不完的 )situation. We're at a tipping point. We need to raise exposure and do something right now."
D.For Ann Cooper, the former director of nutrition services for California's BerkleyUnified School District, help from either the public or private sector is much needed.
Cooper, a chef and author, created thelunchbox.org, funded by Whole Foods. The site'smission is "to help your community transition step by step to a school programme thatwill improve the health and well-being of our children." It features recipes for schools,information about food safety, and promotes community activism. "I hope we'rebuilding a trend," Cooper said of her partnership with Whole Foods. "More companiesare doing this, maybe it's part altruistic ( 利他的 ) , part capitalistic. But if a companycan make money feeding kids and make them healthier, that's the bottom line."
E. That's what the executives of Revolution Foods, a $10-million-a-year business basedin Oakland, said they've been doing since introducing organic meals to four NorthernCalifornia schools in 2006. Three years later, the company supplies 200 schoolcafeterias and has expanded into Denver and Washington, D.C., and sells some of itsproducts in Whole Foods stores. CO0 and co-founder Kirsten Tobey said that 80 to 85percent of Revolution's lunches go to low-income students who are receiving reducedrates or free meals.
F. Not everyone thinks that the current wave of corporate interest is purely about thechildren. Marion Nestle, a professor of nutrition, food studies, and public health atNew York University, is skeptical about the Whole Foods initiative, calling it a public-relations ploy. "I think most schools know exactly what to do. They just don't have themoney to do it," Nestle said. And even Whole Foods' customers are skeptical aboutthe plan. In a comment on the Whole Foods official blog, "The Whole Story", onecommenter wrote: "There is a massive problem with our school meals. I agree. But Idoubt Whole Foods is going to make much contribution to this problem with fleecing (诈取) their customers for website funding."
G. The premium supermarket chain could indeed use some good public relations (PR)these days. Whole Foods took a PR hit on August 11, when CEO John Mackey wrote anopinion piece in The Wall Street Journal opposing the public option in President BarackObama's health-care plan. The piece caused an uproar among some of the market'scustomers who saw Mackey's views as out of step with Whole Foods' progressivestance. Some customers threatened to organise a nationwide boycott via Twitter andFacebook, but protests were mostly limited to a handful of store demonstrations.
H. Still, almost everyone is in agreement that school lunches need help. The debate is abouthow best to go about making things better. On one side there is the hyperlocal approach. InJuly, Kaiser Permanente, an Oakland, Calif-based managed-care organisation, donated $3,000to help fund a summer lunch programme for 300 students in Rancho Cordova, Calif. JackRozance, the physician-in-chief for Kaiser Permanente in Sacramento, was informed by acolleague that while year-round lunches were federally funded, there was no money to paystaff to serve those meals. The Kaiser money made up for the shortfall in an "economicallydepressed" community, according to Rozance. And in Michigan, Blue Cross Blue Shieldallocated $2,200 to a Grand Rapids charter school for a salad bar, healthy snacks, and an in-class "smart eating programme." They also gave $15,000 to a Traverse City, Mich., elementaryschool that will be preparing "cook from scratch" meals instead of serving prepared foods.
I. Then there are companies like Whole Foods that think a national campaign would do themost to increase federal subsidies, ban trans-fats from school cafeterias, and infuse menuswith more locally grown foods. But solutions aren't borne out of an either-or mentality, saysNYU's Nestle: "The implementation of change needs to come both on the small scale andat the national policy level." "Because of their size and influence, national companies canexert the kind of pressure that could affect federal policy," she said. On a local level, smallgrants could fund approaches tailored for individual school districts. "Unfortunately, thereare barriers at every level to overcome."
1.[选词填空]The school meals in the US look good but lack nutrition.
    • 解题思路:根据题目中的school meals和nutrition将本题出处定位于A.段。该段第2句指出,如今许多学校的食堂给学生提供的食物就像飞机上提供的食物一样诱人,这是学校提供的食物的特点之一,即卖相好看;而本段倒数第2句中修饰meals的定语从句that are overly processed,too richin fat and not肌tritious则指出了目前学校提供的食物的另一个特点,即过度加工、脂肪过多、没有营养。本题是对这两句内容的综合概述。
    2.[选词填空]The purpose to support an online effort is to help school districts create healthy andaffordable meal options to the children.
      • 解题思路:根据题目中的school districts create healthy and affordable meal叩tions将本题出处定位于C.段。该段第1句指出,美国有机商品连锁超市发起了一场集资活动,目前已经募集了44万余元,用来支持网络上的一些努力,以帮助学校创造更健康、有更多选择且负担得起的午餐环境。
      3.[选词填空] In Ann Cooper's opinion, school lunch programme needs help from the public andprivate sectors.
        • 解题思路:根据题目中的Ann Cooper将本题出处定位于D)段。本段继续就改善学校午餐项目进行阐述,该段第1句中安·库珀指出,目前迫切需要来自公有企业或私营企业的帮助。本题是对该句的同义转述。
        4.[选词填空]Ann Cooper's website mainly concerns children's health and well-being.
          • 解题思路:根据题目中的Ann Cooper,website和health and well—bein9将本题出处定位于D)段。该段第3句指出,安·库珀所创立的网站的任务就是逐步引导社区关注能够改善孩子健康和幸福的学校午餐计划;并且第4句还指出,该网站还给出适合学校的食谱以及有关食物安全的信息,并且还提升了社区活跃度。因此可知网站主要关心的是孩子们的健康和幸福。
          5.[选词填空]According to Whole Foods and some advocates, the first thing that should be done toreform the country's school lunch programme is to create a healthier national food policy.
            • 解题思路:根据题目中的Whole Foods及a healthier national food policy将本题出处定位于B)段。上一段指出,美国学校提供给学生的食物好看但是没有营养,并指出要从全国和各地对这种现象进行改革是项挑战;本段则就如何进行改革出谋划策。该段最后一句指出,美国有机商品连锁超市和一些有机食品生产商和倡导者们认为,进行彻底的改变应首先从制定更加健康的国家食品政策开始。本题是对该句的同义转述,其中the first thin9对应原文中的the start。
            6.[选词填空]According to Marion Nestle, the initial purpose of the Whole Foods' efforts to reformthe school lunch programme is not to improve students' health but to enhance theirpublic image.
              • 解题思路:根据题目中的Marion Nestle和the initial purpose将本题出处定位于F)段。该段第1句指出,并不是每一个人都相信公司帮助改革学校午餐计划纯粹是为了学生。第2句以马里昂·内斯特莱为例进行说明。该句指出,马里昂·内斯特莱对美国有机商品连锁超市的动机表示怀疑,并将其称作是公关造势行为。由此可见,马里昂·内斯特莱认为美国有机商品连锁超市的出发点是提高自身的公众形象,本题是对该句的同义转述。
              7.[选词填空]Most protests against John Mackey's opinion take the way of store demonstrations atlast, according to the passage.
                • 解题思路:根据题目中的store demonstrations将本题出处定位于G)段。该段最后一句指出,许多消费者在知道了约翰·麦基的观点之后威胁要通过推特和脸谱网组织全国范围内的联合抵制,但最终大多数抵抗都以商店示威而结束。本题是对该句的同义转述。
                8.[选词填空]In the eyes of some consumers of the Whole Foods, John Mackey's opinion ran counterto the supermarket's progressive stance.
                  • 解题思路:根据题目中的John Mackey将本题出处定位于G)段。该段第2句指出,约翰·麦基在《华尔街日报》上发表了—篇文章,反对公众对奥巴马总统的医疗健康计划的意见。第3句指出,这篇文章在一些美国有机商品连锁超市的消费者中间造成了骚动,他们认为麦基的观点与美国有机商品连锁超市的进步立场不一致。本题是对这两句的综合概述。
                  9.[选词填空]Students from low-income families are the biggest beneficiaries of Revolution Foods.
                    • 解题思路:根据题目中的low.income和Revolution Foods将本题出处定位于E)段。该段最后一句指出,改良食品公司的80%到85%的午餐都给了低收入家庭的学生,由此可推断,低收入家庭的学生是改良食品公司的最大受益者,本题是对该句的同义转述。
                    10.[选词填空]It is the size and influence of the national companies that enable them to affect federal foodpolicy, according to Nestle.
                      • 解题思路:根据题目中的size and influence和affect federal food policy将本题出处定位于I)段。该段第3句指出,正是全国性公司的规模和影响力才使得它们能够施加一定的压力来影响联邦政策。本题是对该句的同义转述,将原文的因果关系句改为了强调句型来突出强调原文中的原因状语because of their size and influence。
                      • 参考答案:A,C,D,D,B,F,G,G,E,I