大学英语四级题库/阅读理解 Section B

Pub-talkA) Pub-talk, the most popular activity in all pubs, is a native dialect with its own distinctive grammar. There are very few restrictions on what you can talk about in pubs: pub etiquette (礼节) is concerned mainly with the form of your conversation, not the content.
The greeting ritual
When a regular enters the pub, you will often hear friendly greetings from other regulars, the publican and bar staff (“Evening, Joe”, “Alright, Joe?”, “Wotcha, Joe”, “Usual is it, Joe?”, etc.). The regular responds to each greeting, usually addressing the greeter by name or nickname (“Evening, Doe”, “Alright, there, Lofty?” “Wotcha, Bill” “Usual, thanks, Pauline”, etc.). No one is conscious of obeying a rule or following a formula, yet you will hear the same greeting ritual in every pub in the country.
Pub etiquette does not limit the actual words to be used in this exchange—and you may hear some inventive and peculiar variations. The words may not even be particularly polite: a regular may be greeted with “Back again, Joe?—haven’t you got a home to go to?” or “Ah, just in time to buy your round, Joe!”
How to join in
B) When you first enter a pub, don’t just order a drink—start by saying “Good evening” or “Good morning”, with a friendly nod and a smile, to the bar staff and the regulars at the bar counter. For most natives, this will start an automatic greeting-response, even if it is only a nod. Don’t worry if the initial response is somewhat reserved. By greeting before ordering, you have communicated friendly intentions. Although this does not make you an “instant regular”, it will be noticed, and your subsequent attempts to initiate contact will be received more favorably.
The pub-argument
C) You may well hear a lot of arguments in pubs—arguing is the most popular pastime of regular pub-goers—and some may seem to be quite heated. But pub-arguments are not like arguments in the real word. They are conducted in accordance with a strict code of etiquette: You should not take things too seriously. The etiquette of pub-arguments reflects the principles governing all social interaction in the pub: equality, interaction, the pursuit of intimacy and a non-aggression agreement. Any student of human relations will recognize these principles as the essential foundation of all social bonding, and social bonding is what pub-arguments are all about. Rule number one: The pub-argument is an enjoyable game—no strong views or deeply held convictions are necessary to engage in a lively dispute. Pub regulars will often start an argument about anything, just for the fun of it.
D) A bored regular will often deliberately spark off an argument by making an outrageous or extreme statement, and then sit back and wait for the inevitable cries of “Rubbish!”—or something less polite. The initiator will then hotly defend his statements (which he secretly knows to be indefensible), and counter-attack by accusing his opponents of stupidity, ignorance or worse. The exchange may continue in this fashion for some time, although the attacks and counter-attacks will often drift away from the original issue, moving on to other contentious subjects and eventually focusing almost entirely on the personal qualities of the participants. You may notice, however, that opponents continue to buy each other drinks throughout the match. By the end, everyone may have forgotten what the argument was supposed to be about. No-one ever wins, no-one ever surrenders. When participants become bored or tired, the accepted formula for ending the argument is to finish a sentence with “—and anyway, it’s your round”. Opponents remain the best of mates, and a good time has been had by all.
How to join in
E) Do not try to join in arguments taking place at tables: only those which occur at the bar counter are “public” arguments. Even at the bar counter, watch for the “open” body-language which signals that others are welcome to participate. Involvement of the bar staff or publican is another sign that the argument is public rather than personal. Body-language and facial expressions are also your best guide to the level of “seriousness” of the dispute. Heated and even insulting words may be used, but in most pub-arguments the relaxed posture and expressions of the participants reveal the lack of any real hostility. Once you have established that the argument is both public and non-hostile, feel free to add your comments and opinions—but remember that this is a game, and do not expect to be taken seriously. Also remember that round-buying is the most effective non-aggression signal. If you unknowingly cause offence, or find yourself in any trouble, buy a round of drinks for your companions. The phrase “I think it must be my round” should get you out of almost any difficulty.
Free-association
F) Listen carefully, and you will realize that most pub-talk is also a form of free-association. In the pub, the naturally reserved and cautious natives give voice to whatever passing thought happens to occur to them. You will notice that pub-conversations rarely progress in any kind of logical manner; they do not stick to the point, nor do they reach a conclusion. Pub-talk moves in a mysterious way—mostly in apparently random sideways leaps.’ A remark about the weather starts a prediction as to which horse will win the big race at Cheltenham, which starts an argument about the merits of the National Lottery, which leads to a discussion of the latest political scandal, which is interrupted by another regular demanding assistance with a crossword clue, one element of which leads to a comment about a recent fatal traffic accident in the neighborhood, which somehow turns into a discussion about the barman’s new haircut and so on. There is a vague logic in some of the connections, but most changes of subject are started by participants “free-associating” with a random word or phrase.
How to join in
G) Having established that the conversation is “public” (taking place at the bar counter, open body-language, etc.), you just say whatever happens to come into your head in connection with the current topic of conversation.
Pub humor
Jokes, puns, teasing, wit, and backchat (回嘴) are all essential ingredients of pub-talk. In fact, you will notice that most pub-talk has an undercurrent of humor, never far below the surface.
Most pub humor is quite subtle—occasionally to the point of obscurity—and some participants have a command of irony that would impress Jane Austen.
Rule number two: Be prepared to laugh at yourself, as you will almost certainly be teased.
H) Like Austen’s Mr. Bennet, pub regulars are disposed to find the faults and mistakes of others amusing, rather than distressing. A boastful person will often be encouraged to explain his favorite topic (“Oh, did you really? Do tell us about it!”) purely so that the audience may laugh at his self-importance. If you are inclined to take yourself a bit too seriously, to mention your high-powered job more often than is strictly necessary, or to derive too much enjoyment from the sound of your own voice—beware! Any over-obvious attempts to impress the natives will have the opposite effect. But if you are teased about your failings, do not be upset or offended. Teasing is a sign that you are liked, in spite of your faults. Among regulars, everyone is subjected to at least some teasing—even the most kind and popular person will be found to have some quality worth laughing at. If the natives did not like you, they would not tease you, but would simply ignore and avoid you.
How to join in
I) As a newcomer, it is best to show that you can laugh at yourself before making fun of your new acquaintances. You may not be able to match the dry wit and quick response of native pub-goers, but as a foreigner, you do have two advantages. First, British pub-goers tend to regard all foreigners as instinctively funny. If you are prepared to laugh at yourself, all of your apparent disadvantages such as language difficulties, unfamiliarity with native customs, ignorance about British beer etc. are potential sources of amusement. Second, regulars may well be bored with each other’s familiar jokes, and will welcome any fresh material you can offer.

1.[选词填空]When pub regulars greet each other, they often give friendly greetings.
    2.[选词填空]When free-association is involved, pub talks may rarely evolve logically.
      3.[选词填空]The etiquette of pub-arguments is that pub-goers should not take things too seriously.
        4.[选词填空]When a pub staff takes part in a pub-argument, it suggests that the argument is public.
          5.[选词填空]You can begin to talk in free-association after you are sure that the conversation is public.
            6.[选词填空]The etiquette of pub-arguments reflects principles of equality, interaction, the pursuit of intimacy and a non-aggression agreement.
              7.[选词填空]It is necessary for someone who first enters a pub to greet before ordering because it will make his future contact easier.
                8.[选词填空]Pub etiquette focuses mainly on the form of the conversation.
                  9.[选词填空]If the other pub regulars make fun of you, it indicates that they like you.
                    10.[选词填空]All of your obvious disadvantages as a foreigner will become sources of amusement when you are prepared to laugh at yourself.
                      参考答案: A,F,C,E,G,B,B,A,H,I