文明是什么意思?它意指一个建立在平民百姓舆论基础上的社会。它意味着暴力、武士和暴君的(despotic)统治、战争冲突、暴动暴政(tyranny)为立法议会所取代,被法律得以长期维护的独立法庭所代替。这就是文明,在文明的土壤里,自由、舒适和文化不断发展壮大。如果文明在任何一个国家里占了支配地位(reign),那么便可给人民群众提供一种更加宽松的较为平静的生活,过去的传统则受人珍重,英明伟人或勇士们留给(bequeath)我们的遗产则成为咱们大家共同享用的丰富的财产。

参考答案:     What does civilization mean? It means a society based upon the opinion of civilians. It means that violence, the rule of warriors and despotic chiefs, the conditions of camps and warfare, of riot and tyranny, give place to parliaments where laws are made, and independent courts of justice in which over long periods those laws are maintained. That is Civilization ---and in its soil grow continually freedom, comfort and culture. When Civilization reigns in any country, a wider and less harassed life is afforded to the masses of the people, the traditions of the past are cherished, and the inheritance bequeathed to us by former wise or valiant men becomes a rich estate to be enjoyed and used by all.