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High School Sports Aren't Killing Academics

  A. In this month's Atlantic cover article, "The Case Against High-School Sports," Amanda Ripley arguesthat school-sponsored sports programs should be seriously cut. She writes that, unlike most countriesthat outperform the United States on international assessments, American schools put too much of anemphasis on athletics. “Sports are embedded in American schools in a way they are not almostanywhere else," she writes.“Yet this difference hardly ever comes up in domestic debates aboutAmerica's international mediocrity (平庸) in education."
  B.American student-athletes reap many benefits from participating in sports, but the costs to the schoolscould outweigh their benefits, she argues. In particular, Ripley contends that sports crowd out theacademic missions of schools: America should learn from South Korea and Finland and every othercountry at the top level of international test scores, all of whom emphasize athletics far less in school."Even in eighth grade, American kids spend more than twice the time Korean kids spend playingsports," she writes, citing a 2010 study published in the Journal of Advanced Academics.
  C. It might well be true that sports are far more rooted in American high schools than in other countries.But our reading of international test scores finds no support for the argument against school athletics.Indeed, our own research and that of others lead us to make the opposite case. School-sponsored sportsappear to provide benefits that seem to increase, not detract (减少) from, academic success.
  D. Ripley indulges a popular obsession (痴迷) with international test score comparisons, which show wideand frightening gaps between the United States and other countries. She ignores, however, the factthat states vary at least as much in test scores as do developed countries. A 2011 report from HarvardUniversity shows that Massachusetts produces math scores comparable to South Korea and Finland,while Mississippi scores are closer to Trinidad and Tobago. Ripley's thesis about sports falls apart inlight of this fact. Schools in Massachusetts provide sports programs while schools in Finland do not.Schools in Mississippi may love football while in Tobago interscholastic sports are nowhere near asprominent. Sports cannot explain these similarities in performance. They can't explain internationaldifferences either.
  E. If it is true that sports undermine the academic mission of American schools, we would expect to see a
negative relationship between the commitment to athletics and academic achievement. However, theUniversity of Arkansas's Daniel Bowen and Jay Greene actually find the opposite. They examine thisrelationship by analyzing schools' sports winning percentages as well as student-athletic participationrates compared to graduation rates and standardized test score achievement over a five-year period forall public high schools in Ohio. Controlling for student poverty levels, demographics (人口统计状况),and district financial resources, both measures of a school's commitment to athletics are significantlyand positively related to lower dropout rates as well as higher test scores.
  F. On-the-field success and high participation in sports is not random--it requires focus and dedication toathletics. One might think this would lead schools obsessed with winning to deemphasize academics.Bowen and Greene's results contradict that argument. A likely explanation for this seeminglycounterintuitive (与直觉相反的 ) result is that success in sports programs actually facilitates or reflectsgreater social capital within a school's community.
  G. Ripley cites the writings of renowned sociologist James Coleman, whose research in education wasgroundbreaking. Coleman in his early work held athletics in contempt, arguing that they crowded outschools' academic missions. Ripley quotes his 1961 study, The Adolescent Society, where Colemanwrites, "Altogether, the trophy (奖品) case would suggest to the innocent visitor that he was enteringan athletic club, not an educational institution."
  H. However, in later research Coleman would show how the success of schools is highly dependent onwhat he termed social capital, "the norms, the social networks, and the relationships between adultsand children that are of value for the child's growing up."
  I.According to a 2013 evaluation conducted by the Crime Lab at the University of Chicago, a programcalled Becoming a Man--Sports Edition creates lasting improvements in the boys' study habits andgrade point averages. During the first year of the program, students were found to be less likely totransfer schools or be engaged in violent crime. A year after the program, participants were less likelyto have had an encounter with the juvenile justice system.
  J. If school-sponsored sports were completely eliminated tomorrow, many American students would stillhave opportunities to participate in organized athletics elsewhere, much like they do in countries suchas Finland, Germany, and South Korea. The same is not certain when it comes to students from moredisadvantaged backgrounds.  In an overview of the research on non-school based after-schoolprograms, researchers find that disadvantaged children participate in these programs at significantlylower rates. They find that low-income students have less access due to challenges with regard totransportation, non-nominal fees, and off-campus safety. Therefore, reducing or eliminating theseopportunities would most likely deprive disadvantaged students of the benefits from athleticparticipation, not least of which is the opportunity to interact with positive role models outside ofregular school hours.
  K. Another unfounded criticism that Ripley makes is bringing up the stereotype that athletic coaches aretypically lousy (蹩脚的) classroom teachers. "American principals, unlike the vast majority ofprincipals around the world, make many hiring decisions with their sports teams in mind, which doesnot always end well for students." she writes. Educators who seek employment at schools primarily forthe purpose of coaching are likely to shirk (推卸) teaching responsibilities, the argument goes.Moreover, even in the cases where the employee is a teacher first and athletic coach second, theadditional responsibilities that come with coaching likely come at the expense of time otherwise spenton planning, grading, and communicating with parents and guardians.
  L. The data, however, do not seem to confirm this stereotype. In the most rigorous study on theclassroom results of high school coaches, the University of Arkansas's Anna Egalite finds that athleticcoaches in Florida mostly tend to perform just as well as their non-coaching counterparts, with respectto raising student test scores. We do not doubt that teachers who also coach face serious tradeoffs thatlikely come at the expense of time they could dedicate to their academic obligations. However, as withsporting events, athletic coaches gain additional opportunities for communicating and serving asmentors (导师) that potentially help students succeed and make up for the costs of coachingcommitments.
  M. If schools allow student-athletes to regularly miss out on instructional time for the sake of traveling toathletic competitions, that's bad. However, such issues would be better addressed by changing schooland state policies with regard to the scheduling of sporting events as opposed to total elimination. Ifthe empirical evidence points to anything, it points towards school-sponsored sports providing assetsthat are well worth the costs.
  N. Despite negative stereotypes about sports culture and Ripley's presumption that academics and athleticsare at odds with one another, we believe that the greater body of evidence shows that school-sponsoredsports programs appear to benefit students. Successes on the playing field can carry over to theclassroom and vice versa (反之亦然). More importantly, finding ways to increase school communities'social capital is imperative to the success of the school as a whole, not just the athletes.

1.[选词填空]According to an evaluation, sports programs contribute to students' academic performance and characterbuilding.
    • 解题思路:由题干中的evaluation,sports programs,students’academic performance和characterbuildin9定位到I段。细节归纳题。定位段提到了2013年的一项评估,指出体育活动可以改善男孩的学业表现,并且可降低学生卷入暴力犯罪和司法案件的概率。题干中的students’academic performance对应定位段中的the boys’study habits and gradepoint averages,题干中的character buildin9是对定位段第二、三句中的be less likely to…beengaged in violent crime和were less likely tohave had an encounter with the juvenile justiceSystem的总结归纳,故答案为I。

    2.[选词填空]Students from low-income families have less access to off-campus sports programs.
      • 解题思路:由题干中的low.income和off.campus定位到J)段第四句。细节推断题。由定位句可知,研究者发现,由于交通、不菲的费用和校园外的安全问题等方面的限制,低收入家庭的学生参与校外体育活动的机会较少。题干中的low.income,have lessaccess及off.campus都可与定位句中的词句对应,故答案为J)。
      3.[选词填空]James Coleman suggests in his earlier writings that school athletics would undermine a school's image.
        • 解题思路:由题干中的James Coleman,earlier writings和undermine a school’S image定位到G.段第二、三句。细节推断题。定位段第二句提到,Coleman在其早期的著作中对体育持蔑视态度,认为体育排挤了学校的教学使命。第三句又提到,Coleman在《青少年社会》中写道:奖品陈列柜会让不知情的来访者认为他正在进入一个体育俱乐部,而不是一个教育机构,由此可知,Coleman暗示学校体育会破坏学校形象。题干中的earlierwritings对应定位句中的early work,而undermine a school’S image可由定位句中的thetrophy case would suggest to the innocent visitorthat he was entering an athletic club,not aneducational institution推断而来,故答案为G。

        4.[选词填空] Amanda Ripley argues that America should learn from other countries that rank high in internationaltests and lay less emphasis on athletics.
          • 解题思路:由题干中的learn from,internationaltests和emphasis定位到B)段第二句。同义转述题。定位句提到,美国应该效仿韩国、芬兰及其他任何一个在国际考试中成绩排名靠前的国家,这些国家的学校对体育的重视都远远不及美国。题干中的other countries thatrank high in international tests是对定位句中的South Korea and Finland and every other countryat the top level of international test scores的同义转述,题干中的lay less emphasis on athletics是对定位句中的emphasize athletics far less的同义转述,故答案为B。

          5.[选词填空]Researchers find that there is a positive relationship between a school's commitment to athletics and academic achievements.
            • 解题思路:由题干中的commitment to athletics和academic achievements定位到E段第一句。细节归纳题。定位句提到,如果体育真的不利于美国学校完成教学任务,那么我们应该发现体育投入与学业成就之间是负相关的。但第二句指出,阿肯色大学的Daniel Bowen和Jay Greene却发现事实与此相反。也就是说,体育投入的多少与教学成就的大小是呈正比的,即呈正相关的关系。题于是对E)段第一、二句的总结归纳,故答案为E。

            6.[选词填空] A rigorous study finds that athletic coaches also do well in raising students' test scores.
              • 解题思路:由题干中的A rigorous study,athleticcoaches和raising students’test scores定位到L.段第二句。同义转述题。定位句提到,在一个关于高中体育教练课堂教学效果的很严格的研究中,阿肯色大学的Anna Egalite发现,在提高学生考试分数方面,佛罗里达州的体育教练往往与他们不担任教练的一些同事表现得一样好。题于是对定位句的总结归纳,故答案为L。
              7.[选词填空] According to the author, Amanda Ripley fails to note that students' performance in exams varies fromstate to state.
                • 解题思路:由题干中的fails to note,varies和state定位到D段第二句。细节推断题。定位句提到,她忽视了一个事实:各州之间在考试分数方面的差异至少和发达国家之间在考试分数方面的差异一样大。题干中的fails to note是对定位句中的ignores的同义转述,故答案为D。
                8.[选词填空]Amanda Ripley thinks that athletic coaches are poor at classroom instruction.
                  • 解题思路:由题干中的athletic coaches,are poor at和classroom定位到K)段第一句。细节推断题。定位句提到,Ripley另一个.无稽的批评是援引“体育教练通常都是蹩脚的教师”这一成见。题干中的are poor at对应定位句中的are typically lousy,故答案为K。
                  9.[选词填空]James Coleman's later research makes an argument for a school's social capital. 
                    • 解题思路:由题干中.的James Coleman’S,laterresearch和social capital定位到H段。细节推断题。定位段指出,在后期的研究中,Coleman揭示了学校的成功高度依赖于他所谓的“社会资本”,并且分析指出了所谓“社会资本”的具体内涵。题干与定位句意思一致,故答案为H)。

                    10.[选词填空]Amanda Ripley believes the emphasis on school sports should be brought up when trying to understand why American students are mediocre.
                      • 解题思路:由题干中的the emphasis on schoolsports,brought up和mediocre定位到A.段第二至四句。细节推断题。由定位句可知,Amanda Ripley认为,与大多数在国际评估中超越美国的国家不同,美国的学校太过重视体育运动。体育深深地融入了美国学校生活中,几乎其他任何地方都不是这样的;然而,国内在探讨美国教育在国际上的平庸表现时却几乎从未提到这一点区别。也就是说,Amanda Ripley认为美国教育在国际上的平庸表现与学校太过重视体育运动有关。题干中的the emphasis on school sports对应定位句中的an emphasis on athletics,题干中的bebrought up对应定位句中的coms up,题干中的mediocre对应定位句中的mediocrity,故答案为A。

                      大学英语六级在线题库
                      • 参考答案:I,J,G,B,E,L,D,K,H,A