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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section C】
试题内容
     A company in Boston, Adela Voice, has invented a smart-phone application called Start Talking that allows drivers to send and receive text messages while driving. Unfortunately, however, such a hands-free texting device will not reduce the likelihood of an accident while texting.
     To date,30 states have outlawed texting while driving. The new smart-phone application is obviously designed to get around such laws and allow the drivers to text while driving. However, the device is unlikely to reduce accidents for the same reason that the use of hands-free cell phones apparently has not reduced auto accidents.
     As I explain in an earlier post, it is not the use of the hands while driving that is likely contributing to the greater likelihood of accidents while talking on the cell phone or texting, but the use of the brain for an evolutionarily novel, "unnatural" behavior of communicating with a person who is not present. Hands-free devices do not alter the evolutionary novelty of such communication, so they are not likely to be less cognitively taxing than hand-held cell phones.
     Because there was no such thing as communicating with someone who is not present within the earshot (听力之所及范围) in the ancestral environment, all such communications are evolutionarily novel. And the human brain,' designed for and adapted to the conditions of the ancestral (祖传的)environment, has inherent difficulty comprehending and dealing with all such communications. It likely finds such tasks cognitively demanding and taxing, and a greater portion of their cognitive energy and attention will have to be diverted from the (equally evolutionarily novel. task of driving a car to the cell phone conversation. The human brain likely finds it too cognitively demanding to carryon two such evolutionarily novel tasks simultaneously and efficiently.
If the hands-free texting application reduces the likelihood of accidents at all, it is probably not because it is hands-free, but because it allows the users to use (evolutionarily familiar) spoken language, rather than (evolutionarily novel) written language, in the communication.
     If we want truly to reduce auto accidents as a result of cell phone conversations, we shouldn't be using hands-free devices, because they do not do anything to alter the evolutionary novelty of the conversation. As I mention in the earlier post, we should develop a technology that allows us to project a holographic image of the person we are speaking to inside the car. Short of that, we should encourage, people to use the new iPhone application Face time that allows them to see the other person on the phone. Using Face time should somewhat fool their brain into thinking that the person they are communicating with is immediately present, especially if they are less intelligent.
1.[单选题]What can we learn from the passage?
  • A.Talking to people face-to-face is evolutionarily novel.
  • B.Driving a car is evolutionarily familiar.
  • C.Having a cell phone conversation is evolutionarily familiar.
  • D.Sending short messages is evolutionarily novel.
  • 解题思路:由第5段可知,与不在场的人进行的交谈属于进化上的创新,发短信属于此类情况,故D正确。面对面交谈属于evolutionarily familiar,故排除A;开车属于evolutionarily novel,故排除B;电话交谈属于evolutionarily novel,故排除C。
2.[单选题]What's the author's advice in accident reduction due to cell phone conversations?
  • A.Strengthen the legal supervision over drivers using a cell phone.
  • B.Invent a new technology that can create an image of the person we're talking to.
  • C.Encourage people to use the hands-free devices when driving a car.
  • D.Increase penalties for texting or using a cell phone while driving.
  • 解题思路:最后一段提到,要减少使用手机导致的交通事故,我们应该发明一种技术,在车内投射出我们交谈对象的全息影像,故B正确。
3.[单选题]What can we learn about the human brain from the fourth Paragraph?
  • A.It has inherent difficulty comprehending face-to-face c
  • B.It has post-natal difficulty dealing with cell phone communication.
  • C.It can't carry on two evolutionarily novel tasks at the same time.
  • D.It needs a great deal of cognitive energy to handle driving a car.
  • 解题思路:第4段倒数第二句提到,大脑会发觉这类任务有认知需求和负担,从开车(同等地进化上创新的.任务转换到手机聊天需要更多的认知能量和注意力。由此可知,大脑处理开车任务需要很多认知能量,故D正确。原文说的是人类的大脑遗传了理解和处理与不在场的人进行谈话的困难性。不包括面对面的交谈。也不是后天形成的这种困难,故A、B两项错误。原文说大脑不能同时且有效地处理两项进化上创新的任务,不是说不能简单同时处理两项进化上创新的任务,故C错误。
4.[单选题]What is the greater likelihood of car accidents while talking on the cell phone or texting related to?
  • A.The use of the hands.
  • B.The use of the eyes.
  • C.The use of the brain.
  • D.The use of the mouth.
  • 解题思路:第3段第1句提到,并不是开车时使用手机打电话或者发短信这些对手的使用加大了交通事故的可能性,而是对大脑在与一个不在场的人交谈这种进化上创新的、“非自然的”行为上的应用(加大了交通事故的可能性.。由此可知答案为C。
5.[单选题]What is said about the new smart-phone application?
  • A.It has received some praise from drivers.
  • B.It has violated the law obviously.
  • C.It turns out not having reduced accidents.
  • D.It allows drivers to text messages without hands.
  • 解题思路:第1段最后一句提到,这种不需要动手的短信编辑工具是不会降低因发短信而导致事故发生的可能性的。即这种手机程序可以让司机不需要动手就能发短信,故D正确。原文没有提到该智能手机得到了司机的赞扬,故排除A。原文说的是至今已有30个州将开车时发短信视为违法行为,显然这种新型的智能手机程序是在逃避这类法律,但不是说这种手机很明显违反了法律,故B错误。第一段末用的是将来时态,可以推断出这种手机还没有广泛使用,故C错误。
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  • 参考答案:C,B,D,C,D