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   Apparently everyone knows that global warming only makes climate more extreme. A hot, dry summer has triggered another flood of such claims. And, while many interests are at work, one of the players that benefits the most from this story are the mediathe notion of “extreme” climate simply makes for more compelling news.

Consider Paul Krugman, writing breathlessly in the New York Times about the “rising incidence of extreme events.” He claims that global warming caused the current drought in America’s Midwest, and that supposedly record-high corn prices could cause a global food crisis.

But the United Nations climate panel’s latest assessment tells us precisely the opposite For “North America, there is medium confidence that there has an overall slight tendency toward less dryness. ” Moreover, there is no way that Krugman could have identified this drought as being caused by global warming without a time machine: Climate models estimate that such detection will be possible by 2048, at the earliest.

And, fortunately, this year’s drought appears unlikely to cause a food crisis, as global rice and wheat supplies remain plentiful. Moreover, Krugman overlooks inflation Prices have increased six-fold since 1969so, while corn futures (期货)did set a record of about $8 per bushgl (蒲式耳)in late July, the inflation-adjusted price of corn was higher throughout most of the 1970s, reaching $ 16 in 1974.

Finally, Krugman conveniently forgets that concerns about global warming are the main reason that corn prices have skyrocketed since 2005. Nowadays 40 percent of corn grown in the United States is used to produce ethanol (乙醇),which does absolutely nothing for the climate, but certainly distorts the price of corn—at the expense of many of the world’s poorest people.

Bill Mckibben similarly worries in The Guardian about the Midwest drought and corn prices. He confidently tells us that raging wildfires from New Mexico and Colorado to Siberia are “exactly” what the early stages of global warming look like.

In fact, the latest overview of global wildfire incidence suggests that fire intensity has declined over the past 70 years and is now close to its preindustrial level.

When well-meaning campaigners want us to pay attention to global warming, they often end up pitching beyond the facts. And, while this may seem justified by a noble goal, such “policy by panic” tactics rarely work, and often backfire.

Remember how, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, A1 Gore claimed that we were in store for ever more destructive hurricanes? Since then, hurricane incidence has dropped off the charts. Exaggerated claims merely fuel public distrust and disengagement.
   That is unfortunate, because global warming is a real problem, and we do need to address it.

1.[单选题]What does he author think of the exaggerated claims in the media about global warming?
  • A.They are strategies to raise public awareness.
  • B.They do a disservice to addressing the problem.
  • C.They aggravate public distrust about science.
  • D.They create confusion about climate change.
  • 解题思路:由题干中的exaggerated claims和global warming定位到第九段末句和第十段。第九段末句指出,夸大的说法只能助长公众的不信任和不合作。在第十段中,作者说这很不幸,因为全球变暖的确是一个需要我们解决的问题。由此可知.夸大的说法对解决问题到不到任何帮助.甚至带来了负面影响,故答案为B)。
2.[单选题]What does he author say about global wildfire incidence over the past 70 years?
  • A.It has got worse with the rise in extreme weathers.
  • B.It signals he early stages of global warming.
  • C.It has dropped greatly.
  • D.It is related to drought.
  • 解题思路:由题干中的global wildfire和over the past 70 years定位到第七段。第七段明确指出,最新的关于全球野火发生率的概述表明,在过去70年中,野火的火势一直呈下降趋势,现在已经接近工业化前的水平。选项C)中的dropped是对原文中declined的同义转述,故答案为C).
3.[单选题]What is the chief reason for the rise in corn prices according to the author?
  • A.Demand for food has been rising in the developing countries.
  • B.A considerable portion of corn is used to produce green fuel.
  • C.Climate change has caused corn yields to drop markedly.
  • D.Inflation rates have been skyrocketing since the 1970s.
  • 解题思路:由题干中的the rise in corn prices定位到第五段第二句。定位句指出,目前在美国种植的玉米有40%被用于生产乙醇.这对气候绝对没有任何影响,不过.它却实实在在地扭曲了玉米价格。这说明,玉米价格的上升与气候没有多大关系,而是与玉米的用途的改变有关,选项B)中的green fuel指的就是文章中由玉米作为原材料制造出来的乙醇,故答案为B).
4.[单选题]In what way do the media benefit from extreme weather?
  • A.They can attract people’s attention to their reports.
  • B.They can choose from a greater variety of topics.
  • C.They can make themselves better known.
  • D.They can give voice to different views.
  • 解题思路:由题干中的media. benefit定位到第一段末句。定位句指出,当提到极端天气的事件时.有很多人都会从中受益,但受益最大的莫过于媒体了:“极端”天气能带来更加引人入胜的新闻。也就是说。只要是进行有关.’极端”天气的报道,新闻媒体就可以得到人们的关注,选项A)中的attract people's attention to their reports是对原文中的simply makes for more compelling news的同义转述,故答案为A)
5.[单选题]What is the author’s comment on Krugman’s claim about the current drought in America’s Midwest?
  • A.A time machine is needed to testify to its truth.
  • B.It is based on an erroneous climate model.
  • C.It will eventually get proof in 2048.
  • D.There is no way to prove its validity.
  • 解题思路:由选项中的time machine. climate model定位到第三段末句。定位句指th,除非Krugman有时光机,否则他是没有办法证明干旱是由全球变暖引起的,那是因为按照目前的气候模式预测,最早也要到2048年才有可能实现这种检测。也就是说,目前来讲,没有任何方法来证明Krugman的言论是否真实有效,故答案为D).
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  • 参考答案:B,C,B,A,D