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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
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Section B
 Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Ancient Greek Wisdom Inspires Guidelines to Good Life

     [A] Is it possible to enjoy a peaceful life in a world that is increasingly challenged by threats and uncertainties from wars, terrorism, economic crises and a widespread outbreak of infectious diseases? The answer is yes, according to a new book The 10 Golden Rules: Ancient Wisdom from the Greek Philosophers on Living a Good Life. The book is co-authored by Long Island University’s philosophy professor Michael Soupios and economics professor Panos Mourdoukoutas.

  [B] The wisdom of the ancient Greek philosophers is timeless, says Soupios. The philosophy professor says it is as relevant today as when it was first written many centuries ago. “There is no expiration(失效) date on wisdom,” he says. “There is no shelf life on intelligence. I think that things have become very gloomy these days, lots of misunderstanding, misleading cues, a lot of what the ancients would have called sophistry(诡辩). The nice thing about ancient philosophy as offered by the Greeks is that they tended to see life clear and whole, in a way that we tend not to see life today.”

  Examine your life

  [C] Soupies, along with his co-author Panos Mourdoukoutas, developed their 10 golden rules by turning to the men behind that philosophy-Aristotle, Socrates, Epictetus and Pythagoras, among others. The first rule-examine your life-is the common thread that runs through the entire book. Soupios says that it is based on Plato’s observation that the unexamined life is not worth living. “The Greek are always concerned about boxing themselves in, in terms of convictions(信念),” he says. “So take a step back, switch off the automatic pilot and actually stop and reflect about things like our priorities, our values, and our relationships.”

  Stop worrying about what you cannot control

  [D] As we begin to examine our life, Soupios says, we come to Rule No.2: Worry only about things that you can control. “The individual who promoted this idea was a Stoic philosopher. His name is Epictetus,” he says. “And what the Stoics say in general is simply this. There is a larger plan in life. You are not really going to be able to understand all of the dimensions of this plan. You are not going to be able to control the dimensions of this plan.”

  [E] So, Soupios explains, it is not worth it to waste our physical, intellectual and spiritual energy worrying about things that are beyond our control. “I cannot control whether or not I wind up getting the disease swine flu, for example,” he says. “I mean, there are some cautious steps. I can take, but ultimately I cannot guarantee myself that. So what Epictetus would say is sitting at home worrying about that would be wrong and wasteful and irrational. You should live your life attempting to identify and control those things which you can genuinely control.”

  Seek true pleasure

  [F] To have a meaningful, happy life we need friends. But according to Aristotle—a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great—most relationships don’t qualify as true friendships. “Just because I have a business relationship with an individual and I can profit from that relationship, it does not necessarily mean that this person is my friend,” Soupios says. “Real friendship is when two individuals share the same soul. It is a beautiful and uncharacteristically poetic image that Aristotle offers.”

  [G] In our pursuit of the good life, he says, it is important to seek out true pleasures-advice which was originally offered by Epicurus. But unlike the modern definition of Epicureanism as a life of indulgence(放纵) and luxury, for the ancient Greeks, it meant finding a state of calm, peace and mental ease.

  [H] “This was the highest and most desirable form of pleasure and happiness for the ancient Epicureans.” Soupios says. “This is something that is very much well worth considering here in the modern era. I do not think that we spend nearly enough time trying to concentrate on achieving a sort of calmness, a sort of contentment in mental and spiritual, which was identified by these people as the highest form of happiness and pleasure.”

  Do good to others

  [I] Other golden rules counsel us to master ourselves, to avoid excess and not to be a prosperous (发迹的) fool. There are also rules dealing with interpersonal relationships. Be a responsible human being and do not do evil things to others.

  [J] “This is Hesiod, of course, a younger contemporary poet, we believe, with Homer,” Soupios says. “Hesiod offers an idea—which you very often find in some of the world’s great religions, in the Judeo-Christian tradition and in Islam and others—that in some sense, when you hurt another human being, you hurt yourself. That damaging other people in your community and in your life, trashing relationships, results in a kind of self-inflicted(自己招致的) spiritual wound.”

  [K] Instead, Soupios says, ancient wisdom urges us to do good. Golden Rule No.10 for a good life is that kindness toward others tends to be rewarded.

  [L] “This is Aesop, the fabulist (寓言家), the man of these charming little tales, often told in terms of animals and animal relationships,” he says. “I think what Aesop was suggesting is that when you offer a good turn to another human being, one can hope that that good deed will come back and sort of pay a profit to you, the doer of the good deed. Even if there is no concrete benefit paid in response to you good deed, at the very least, the doer of the good deed has the opportunity to enjoy a kind of spiritually enlightened moment.”

  [M] Soupios say following the 10 Golden Rules based on ancient wisdom can guide us to the path of the good life where we stop living as onlookers and become engaged and happier human beings. And that, he notes, is a life worth living.

1.[选词填空]Not all your business partners are your soul mates.
    • 解题思路:定位由题干中的business和soul mates可定位到F段。
      点睛该段提到:仅仅因为我和一个人建立了商业合作关系,我可以从这段关系中受益,这并不就意味着这个人是我的朋友。而且真正的友谊在于两个人共享一个灵魂。由此可知,商业伙伴并不全是你的灵魂伴侣。因此选F段。
    2.[选词填空]The wise teachings of ancient Greek thinkers are timeless, and are applicable to contemporary life.
      • 解题思路:定位由题干中的timeless以及结合语意可定位到B段。
        点睛该段提到:古希腊哲学家的智慧是永恒的。哲学教授称这智慧在今天仍然与我们相关。由此可知,古希腊思想家智慧的教谕是永恒的,在现代社会同样适用。因此选B段。
      3.[选词填空]We can live a peaceful life despite the various challenges of the modern world.
        • 解题思路:定位由题干中的peaceful和challenges可定位到A段。
          点睛该段提到:在一个日益遭受来自战争、恐怖主义、经济危机和普遍爆发的传染 病等威胁和不确定因素挑战的世界里,过上和平的生活有可能吗?在一本新发行的书中,其答案是肯定的。由此可知,尽管在现代社会会面临各种挑战,但是我们仍有希望过上和平的生活。因此选A段。
        4.[选词填空]Ancient philosophers strongly advise that we do good.
          • 解题思路:定位由题干中的strongly advise和do good可定位到K段。
            点睛该段提到:古代智慧鼓励我们与人为善。由此可知,古代哲学家强烈建议我们行善事。因此选K段。
          5.[选词填空]The doer of a good deed can feel spiritually rewarded even when they gain no concrete benefits.
            • 解题思路:定位由题干中的the doer of a good deed、benefits和spiritually可定位到L段。
              点睛该段提到:即使没有实质性的利益来偿还你的善举,至少于行善之人而言,他有机会享受到了精神上的通明。由此可知,因此选L段。
            6.[选词填空]Ancient Philosophers saw life in a different light from people of today.
              • 解题思路:定位由题干中的in a different light可定位到B段。
                点睛该段提到:古希腊哲学的优点在于他们倾向于用一种清晰而又完整的视角看待生活,今天的我们往往不会用这样的方式看待生活。由此可知,古代哲学家以一种不同于我们今天的视角看待生活。因此选B段。
              7.[选词填空]Do harm to others and you do harm to yourself.
                • 解题思路:定位根据语意可定位到J段。
                  点睛该段提到:在某种意义上,伤害别人的同时也是在伤害你自己。由此可知,伤害别人就等于伤害自己。因此选J段。
                8.[选词填空] Michael Soupios suggests that we should stop and think carefully about our priorities in life.
                  • 解题思路:定位由题干中的stop和priorities可定位到C段。
                    点睛该段提到:索皮奥斯说,我们应该真正地停下来去反思一些事物,比如我们优先考虑的事项、我们的价值观以及人际关系。由此可知,迈克尔·索皮奥斯建议我们停下来认真思考我们在生活中以什么为优先。因此选C段。
                  9.[选词填空]According to an ancient Greek philosopher, it is impossible for us to understand every aspect of our life.
                    • 解题思路:定位由题干中的impossible和understand every aspect of our life可定位到D段。
                      点睛该段提到:你无法真正理解生活这个计划的所有的维度。你也无法控制这个计划的各方各面。由此可知,我们不可能理解生活的方方面面。因此选D段。
                    10.[选词填空]How to achieve mental calmness and contentment is well worth our consideration today.
                      • 解题思路:定位由题干中的mental calmness和contentment可定位到H段。
                        点睛该段提到:在现在这个时代,有一种东西非常值得我们的深思。那就是我们没能花足够的时间关注于去实现一种平静的状态,一种思想和精神的满足。由此可知,如何实现精神上的平和与满足值得我们今天每一个人的深思。因此选H段。
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                      • 参考答案:F,B,A,K,L,B,J,C,D,H